Rapid Automated Risk Assessment

Spatial distribution and analysis of aggregated taxonomic and occurrence data.

Lauraceae

Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.)Mez

Synonyms: N/A

Risk assessment

CategoryCriteriaReason
CRB2AOO
DDEOO
DDFew occurrences

Occurrences and points

Number of occurrences with and without points (usable coordinates).

Total9/2
Recent8/1
Historic1/1

All occurrences

Extent of occurrence0.00km²
Area of occupancy (2km²)8km²
Area of occupancy (43.48km²)3781.00km²
Locations/Subpop.2
Locations/Subpop.11803.40km²

Recent only

Extent of occurrence0.00km²
Area of occupancy (2km²)4km²
Area of occupancy (1.00km²)1.00km²
Locations/Subpop.1
Locations/Subpop.0.00km²

Historic only (abscent or > 50 years)

Extent of occurrence0.00km²
Area of occupancy (2km²)4km²
Area of occupancy (1.00km²)1.00km²
Locations/Subpop.1
Locations/Subpop.0.00km²

Occurrences

familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/newyork/NY_JPGs_Brazil_2015-02/NY_v-120-01203384-01.jpg|http://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/newyork/NY_JPGs_Brazil_2015-02/NY_v-120-01203384-02.jpg
stateProvinceAmazonas
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID2486169
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=nyh
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberNY01203384
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=2486169
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedByB. A. Krukoff;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByH. H. van der Werff
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderNY
identifiernyh:2486169
collectionCodeNY
institutionCodeNY
recordNumber4800
point
verbatimEventDate1933-06-13
timestamp1491715846
countryBrazil
dateIdentified1992
localityNear mouth of Ro Embira (tributary of Rio Tarauaca)
day13
decimalLatitude-7.5
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=us/Batch0008/TO BE TRANSCRIBE/US01348307.jpg
stateProvinceAmazonas
month6
taxonRankESPECIE
identificationRemarksParatipo
occurrenceID3712643
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=us_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberUS01348307
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=3712643
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
year1933
recordedByKrukoff, B. A. (Krukoff, Boris Alexander);
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
decimalLongitude-70.25
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderUS
identifierus_reflora:3712643
collectionCodeUS
institutionCodeUS
recordNumber4800
point
eventDate13/6/1933
verbatimEventDate13-6-1933
timestamp1491717330
countryBrasil
dateIdentified2016
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/newyork/NY_JPGs_Brazil_2015-02/NY_v-120-01203384-01.jpg|http://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/newyork/NY_JPGs_Brazil_2015-02/NY_v-120-01203384-02.jpg
stateProvinceAmazonas
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID2486169
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=nyh
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberNY01203384
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=2486169
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedByB. A. Krukoff;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByH. H. van der Werff
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderNY
identifiernyh:2486169
collectionCodeNY
institutionCodeNY
recordNumber4800
point
verbatimEventDate1933-06-13
timestamp1491729537
countryBrazil
dateIdentified1992
localityNear mouth of Ro Embira (tributary of Rio Tarauaca)
day13
decimalLatitude-7.5
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=us/Batch0008/TO BE TRANSCRIBE/US01348307.jpg
stateProvinceAmazonas
month6
taxonRankESPECIE
identificationRemarksParatipo
occurrenceID3712643
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=us_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberUS01348307
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=3712643
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
year1933
recordedByKrukoff, B. A. (Krukoff, Boris Alexander);
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
decimalLongitude-70.25
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderUS
identifierus_reflora:3712643
collectionCodeUS
institutionCodeUS
recordNumber4800
point
eventDate13/6/1933
verbatimEventDate13-6-1933
timestamp1491730915
countryBrasil
dateIdentified2016
localityPrope Panurè ad Rio Uaupès
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/mnhn/tipos4-Paris/P00711166.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
identificationRemarksJ. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
occurrenceID1237436
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=p_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberP00711166
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1237436
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce R.;Spruce
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderP
identifierp_reflora:1237436
collectionCodeP
institutionCodeMNHN
recordNumber2449
point
verbatimEventDate10-1852/1-1853
timestamp1491730194
dateIdentifieds. d.
occurrenceRemarksConf. J. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
localityPrope Panure ad Rio Uaupés-gapó
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/kew/typus/converted-20001-21614/K000642300.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID1247660
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=k_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberK000642300
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1247660
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByvan der Werff, H.
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderK
identifierk_reflora:1247660
collectionCodeK
institutionCodeK
recordNumber2449
point
timestamp1491729885
countryBrazil
dateIdentified0/0/1991
occurrenceRemarkssmall tree 20-30 ft Fls. yellowish
day04
kingdomPlantae
familyLauraceae
scientificNamePleurothyrium panurense Mez
ownerInstitutionCodeUniversidade Federal do Acre (UFAC)
specificEpithetpanurense
stateProvinceAcre
month04
typeCollection
occurrenceIDBRA:UFAC:UFACPZ:0000005777
sourcehttp://ipt1.cria.org.br/ipt/resource?r=ufacpz
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
modified2016-01-06 11:08:19-02
catalogNumber5777
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
year1993
recordedByDaly, D.C.
scientificNameAuthorshipMez
rightsCreative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.
genusPleurothyrium
languagept
rightsHolderUFACPZ - Herbário da Universidade Federal do Acre
identifierufacpz:BRA:UFAC:UFACPZ:0000005777
datasetNameUFACPZ - Herbário da Universidade Federal do Acre
collectionCodeUFACPZ
institutionCodeUFAC
recordNumber7765
point
timestamp1491715017
countryBrasil
localityRio Juruá, Reserva Extrativisita do alto Juruá, Seringal Damiao
decimalLatitude-9.18
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/newyork/NY_JPGs_Brazil_2015-02/NY_v-120-01203383.jpg
stateProvinceAcre
taxonRankESPECIE
municipalityMarechal Thaumaturgo
occurrenceID2486168
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=nyh
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberNY01203383
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=2486168
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedByD. C. Daly;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByH. H. van der Werff
decimalLongitude-72.68
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderNY
identifiernyh:2486168
collectionCodeNY
institutionCodeNY
recordNumber7765
point
verbatimEventDate1993-04-04
timestamp1491715846
countryBrazil
dateIdentified1995
day04
kingdomPlantae
familyLauraceae
scientificNamePleurothyrium panurense Mez
ownerInstitutionCodeUniversidade Federal do Acre (UFAC)
specificEpithetpanurense
stateProvinceAcre
month04
typeCollection
occurrenceIDBRA:UFAC:UFACPZ:0000005777
sourcehttp://ipt1.cria.org.br/ipt/resource?r=ufacpz
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
modified2016-01-06 11:08:19-02
catalogNumber5777
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
year1993
recordedByDaly, D.C.
scientificNameAuthorshipMez
rightsCreative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.
genusPleurothyrium
languagept
rightsHolderUFACPZ - Herbário da Universidade Federal do Acre
identifierufacpz:BRA:UFAC:UFACPZ:0000005777
datasetNameUFACPZ - Herbário da Universidade Federal do Acre
collectionCodeUFACPZ
institutionCodeUFAC
recordNumber7765
point
timestamp1491728773
countryBrasil
localityPrope Panurè ad Rio Uaupès
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/mnhn/tipos4-Paris/P00711165.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
identificationRemarksJ. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
occurrenceID1237435
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=p_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberP00711165
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1237435
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce R.;Spruce
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderP
identifierp_reflora:1237435
collectionCodeP
institutionCodeMNHN
recordNumber2449
point
verbatimEventDate10-1852/1-1853
timestamp1491730194
dateIdentifieds. d.
occurrenceRemarksConf. J. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
localityPrope Panure ad Rio Uaupés-gapó
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/kew/typus/converted-20001-21614/K000642299.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID1247659
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=k_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberK000642299
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1247659
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByvan der Werff, H.
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderK
identifierk_reflora:1247659
collectionCodeK
institutionCodeK
recordNumber2449
point
timestamp1491716203
countryBrazil
dateIdentified0/0/1991
occurrenceRemarkssmall tree 20-30 ft Fls. yellowish
localityPrope Panure ad Rio Uaupés-gapó
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/kew/typus/converted-20001-21614/K000642300.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID1247660
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=k_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberK000642300
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1247660
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByvan der Werff, H.
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderK
identifierk_reflora:1247660
collectionCodeK
institutionCodeK
recordNumber2449
point
timestamp1491716203
countryBrazil
dateIdentified0/0/1991
occurrenceRemarkssmall tree 20-30 ft Fls. yellowish
localityPrope Panurè ad Rio Uaupès
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/mnhn/tipos4-Paris/P00711165.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
identificationRemarksJ. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
occurrenceID1237435
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=p_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberP00711165
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1237435
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce R.;Spruce
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderP
identifierp_reflora:1237435
collectionCodeP
institutionCodeMNHN
recordNumber2449
point
verbatimEventDate10-1852/1-1853
timestamp1491716529
dateIdentifieds. d.
occurrenceRemarksConf. J. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
localityRio Juruá, Reserva Extrativisita do alto Juruá, Seringal Damiao
decimalLatitude-9.18
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/newyork/NY_JPGs_Brazil_2015-02/NY_v-120-01203383.jpg
stateProvinceAcre
taxonRankESPECIE
municipalityMarechal Thaumaturgo
occurrenceID2486168
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=nyh
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberNY01203383
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=2486168
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedByD. C. Daly;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByH. H. van der Werff
decimalLongitude-72.68
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderNY
identifiernyh:2486168
collectionCodeNY
institutionCodeNY
recordNumber7765
point
verbatimEventDate1993-04-04
timestamp1491729537
countryBrazil
dateIdentified1995
localityPrope Panure ad Rio Uaupés-gapó
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/kew/typus/converted-20001-21614/K000642299.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID1247659
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=k_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberK000642299
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1247659
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce;
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
identifiedByvan der Werff, H.
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderK
identifierk_reflora:1247659
collectionCodeK
institutionCodeK
recordNumber2449
point
timestamp1491729885
countryBrazil
dateIdentified0/0/1991
occurrenceRemarkssmall tree 20-30 ft Fls. yellowish
localityPrope Panurè ad Rio Uaupès
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae Pleurothyrium panurense (Meisn.) Mez (Meisn.)Mez
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=hvpr/mnhn/tipos4-Paris/P00711166.jpg
taxonRankESPECIE
identificationRemarksJ. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
occurrenceID1237436
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=p_reflora
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberP00711166
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=1237436
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshipPleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce R.;Spruce
scientificNameAuthorship(Meisn.)Mez
genusPleurothyrium
rightsHolderP
identifierp_reflora:1237436
collectionCodeP
institutionCodeMNHN
recordNumber2449
point
verbatimEventDate10-1852/1-1853
timestamp1491716529
dateIdentifieds. d.
occurrenceRemarksConf. J. Rohwer, Hamburg 1984
localityNear Panure at Rio Uaupes
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae pleurothyrium panurense
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=r/rbge/RBGE4001-5001/E00259446.jpg
stateProvinceAmazonas
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID3403182
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=e_hv
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberE00259446
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=3403182
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshippleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce, Richard;
scientificNameAuthorshipLauraceae
genuspleurothyrium
rightsHolderE
identifiere_hv:3403182
collectionCodeE
institutionCodeE
recordNumber969
point
timestamp1491717894
countryBrasil
dateIdentifieds. d.
localityNear Panure at Rio Uaupes
familyLauraceae
scientificNameLauraceae pleurothyrium panurense
typeStatusISOTYPUS
specificEpithetpanurense
associatedMediahttp://imagens1.jbrj.gov.br/fsi/server?type=image&source=r/rbge/RBGE4001-5001/E00259446.jpg
stateProvinceAmazonas
taxonRankESPECIE
occurrenceID3403182
sourcehttp://ipt.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/resource?r=e_hv
basisOfRecordPreservedSpecimen
catalogNumberE00259446
bibliographicCitationHerbário Virtual REFLORA Disponível em: http://herbariovirtualreflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/ConsultaPublicoHVUC/ConsultaPublicoHVUC.do?idTestemunho=3403182
scientificNameWithoutAuthorshippleurothyrium panurense
recordedBySpruce, Richard;
scientificNameAuthorshipLauraceae
genuspleurothyrium
rightsHolderE
identifiere_hv:3403182
collectionCodeE
institutionCodeE
recordNumber969
point
timestamp1491731414
countryBrasil
dateIdentifieds. d.